Sunday, April 30, 2017

Welcome to the new Age of Revolution: No, it isn’t over yet, and we have no idea where it’s going

Saturday, Apr 29, 2017 03:00 PM CDT

Many years ago when I was in college, I played the role of Coulmier in a production of Peter Weiss’ ground-breaking play “Marat/Sade.” It was the apex of my brief acting career, during which I always wanted to play the romantic lead and invariably wound up cast as a pompous authority figure: Egeus, Hermia’s windbag father, in “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”; a high school principal in a 1950s farce called “Our Miss Brooks.”

Coulmier is the director of the asylum at Charenton, where the inmates — under the direction of the Marquis de Sade — are performing a play about the French revolutionary leader Jean-Paul Marat, who was murdered in his bath by a woman named Charlotte Corday. (Yes, it’s a play within a play: Avant-garde theater!) One of the play’s conceits is that Coulmier sits in the audience, which supposedly consists of Parisian aristocrats visiting for the day to witness the freak show. Occasionally he interrupts the action, seeking to exercise his authority or apologizing for the quality of the entertainment.

Essentially the character is an extended joke on the fragility and stupidity of power: Coulmier fails to grasp the meaning of either the play he’s in — in which the inmates are literally taking over the asylum — or the one he’s watching, which in its own distorted form captures the violent energy and intellectual ferment of the French Revolution. He believes he’s in control of the situation, and cannot see what the modern audience is meant to see, that his power is already gone and history has passed him by. . .

Saturday, April 29, 2017

Resisting Trump with Revelation (26)

Revelation 14-15 (2)

In one of the famous Peanuts comic strips Charlie Brown and his sister Sallie are talking about the Bible verse they needed to memorize for Sunday school. “Maybe it was something Moses said,” mused Sallie, “or something from the book of Re-evaluation.”[1] Actually, that’s a pretty good name for Revelation. That’s it’s primary goal – to get us to re-evaluate everything in the light of Jesus Christ! Richard Bauckham puts it well:

“We have already noticed the unusual profusion of visual imagery in Revelation and                                its capacity to create a symbolic world which its readers can enter and thereby have                                their perception of the world in which they lived transformed. To appreciate the                           importance of this we should remember that Revelation's readers in the great cities                                       of the province of Asia were constantly confronted with powerful images of the Rom-                           an vision of the world. Civic and religious architecture, iconography, statues, rituals                            and festivals, even the visual wonder of cleverly engineered 'miracles' (cf. Rev. 13:                                         13—14) in the temples all provided powerful visual impressions of Roman imperial                                    power and of the splendour of pagan religion.  In this context, Revelation provides a                                  set of Christian prophetic counter-images which impress on its readers a different                            vision of the world: how it looks from the heaven to which John is caught up in chapter 4.                   The  visual power of the book effects a kind of purging of the Christian imagination,                             refurbishing it with alternative visions of how the world is and will be.”[2]

With the two Beasts apparently in complete control the church needed the strongest form of “re-evlaution” that could be found. That’s why we have the garish, nightmarish images here. Those images reach their ultimate form in 14:14-20: the two “harvests.”

These scenes are difficult to interpret. The excess of the blood flow in the second is particularly troublesome: “and blood flowed from the wine press, as high as a horse’s bridle, for a distance of about two hundred miles.” Let’s see what we can make of them.

First, Joel 3:13 puts the harvests together: let’s note the similarities between the two harvests[3]:

Put in the sickle,
    for the harvest is ripe.
Go in, tread,
    for the wine press is full.

The vats overflow,
    for their wickedness is great.

The vision of the two harvests, then, may well allude to this text.

Second, both have a sickle-wielding agent.

Third, in both the harvest is “ripe.”

Fourth, both harvests are completed with a swing of the sickle. This is not the way grapes are harvested which reminds us we are dealing with symbols here.

Seems clear enough that were dealing with the same event looked at from two different angles. Since we know Jesus is the “one like a Son of Man” (14:14) in the grain harvest, the second angel of the grape harvest must be associated with him too.

And then there’s the language of the grape harvest.[4]

“the vine of the earth” always refers to Israel (Isa.5:1-7; Jer.2:21; Hos.14:7; Mic.4:4; Zech.3:10; Mal.3:11). Jesus calls himself the “vine” in Jn.15. Reaping the vine, then, most naturally means a gathering of God’s people.

The phrase “outside the city” in 14:20. In Mt.21:39 and Heb.13:12-13 identify this phrase as the place of Jesus’ death. This suggests Jesus’ cross is in view. Johnson writes

“I think, therefore, that the blood that flows from the winepress “up to the horses’ bridles, for a distance of one thousand, six hundred stadia” is the blood of Jesus, the vine of the earth, and the blood of his people who suffer with him. It is blood that makes the ‘gathering in’ possible. The judge has shed his own blood to redeem those who repent. Jesus swings his sickle and gathers in those who have been saved by his blood.”[5]

The amount of blood referenced suggests the scope of the witness of Jesus and his people. Blood enough to cover the world!

The grain and harvest visions, then, likely point us to the certainty of Jesus’ victory and the extent of that victory. In both cases, these images contest the claims or assumptions that Caesar and Rome rule the world. This is the re-evaluation the Revelation seeks to effect in its readers. Things are not what them seem to be. That this is crucial to a Christian’s ability to bear effective witness, well, check out Heb.2:8-9 an see for yourself!

[1] Cited in Johnson, Discipleship on the Edge, 253.
[2] Bauckham, Theology, 17.
[3] Johnson, Discipleship on the Edge, 263.
[4] George B. Caird, The Revelation of St. John the Divine (Hendrickson Publishers; Reprint edition, 1993), 192-194. and F. F. Bruce in Carl E. Armerding and Gasque, Ward W., eds. Dreams, Visions and Oracles (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1977), 8.
[5] Johnson, 264.

Friday, April 28, 2017

Resisting Trump with Revelation (25)

The Lamb confronts the beasts (Rev.14-15)

John has seen two dreadful Beasts who embody the power and practice of the Dragon (ch.13). Between them they rule the earth, the bodies, minds, and hearts of its inhabitants. Well, not quite all. There are still those pesky “seven” churches (ch.2-3). Some of them are under attack because they have been faithful to Jesus the Lamb and have refused to play by the Beasts’ rules. The others have in some measure or other have given up, given in, or given out and adopted or adapted Beastly mindsets and ways. It is these churches (all of us), both kinds, that Jesus speaks to in his sermon with increasing urgency as we move toward its climax.

Jesus labors in this sermon to call his churches to what Walter Brueggemann has aptly called “disciplines of readiness.”[1] These are tools for resistance to Empire and Jesus calls his people to embrace them in the struggle.

·            DANGEROUS MEMORIES reaching back to Abraham and Sarah. Israel was tempted to substitute more reasonable and respectable memories rather than embrace the ambiguity and embarrassment of such messy heroes.

·            DANGEROUS CRITICISM that mocks the deadly Empire. We need two kinds of critique. First, we need an ongoing religious critique of the tamed gods of the Empire (commercialized Christianity). Second, we need the political critique of entrenched power, wherever we find it.

·            DANGEROUS PROMISES that imagine a shift of power in the world. The kingdom of God will come. The poem of Isa.54:1-3 is first despairing, but then affirms a wild and outrageous hope.

·            DANGEROUS SONGS that predict unexpected newness of life. We sing a new song and affirm a reality we have not fully experienced. Worship is a political statement.

·            DANGEROUS BREAD free of all imperial ovens. The food God gives is reliable. Hardness of heart comes when we think the Empire controls all the resources.

·            DANGEROUS DEPARTURES of heart and body and mind, leavings undertaken in trust and obedience. Israel looked forward to a time of freedom from exile. Similarly, we need to imagine a time when we leave behind consumerism, ambition, and militarism for other territory.

·            DANGEROUS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT of how life really is. Our God is good; but He is not safe. We sometimes cry out for the elusive Presence, and acknowledge like the early Apostle that we are “hungry and thirsty, homeless and ill treated.”

We have seen some of this already but we’ll see it in fuller measure from here on out in the sermon.

Another “look” (14:1) reveals not another Beast (thank God!) but the Lamb!

The world said, “Who is like the beast and who can fight against it?” (13:4).

John the Seer answers, “The lamb.”

The lamb “standing on Mt. Zion.” The slaughtered lamb (Rev.5:6) standing (not dead) on Mt.Zion (the place of God’s victory! With a force of 144,000 trained and mustered soldiers behind him!

“To understand the number 144,000 we need to go back to chapter seven. There we have a key ‘hear one thing, see another’ vision. John hears ‘144,000’ (12,000 from each of Israel’s twelve tribes—a metaphor for the people of God). Then he sees a countless multitude from ‘every nation, from all tribes and peoples and languages’ (7:9). That is, the 144,000 defines the multitude as the people of God and the multitude defines the 144,000 as actually symbolizes a number beyond counting. This meaning of the 144,000, when applied to what John sees in 14:1, provides a counter to the sense in chapter thirteen of the Beast having authority “over every tribe and people and language and nation” (13:7).[2]              

These “144,000” learn a “new song” (14:3). Remember the “dangerous songs” mentioned by Brueggemann above. Only those “who follow the Lamb wherever he goes” learn this song and by following his way of radical obedience and nonviolent resistance prove themselves to be “first fruits” of a humankind for God and the Lamb.

“The allusion to non-defilement (14:4) is not meant to be taken literally as a statement about avoiding sex. It is following in line with many prophetic references in the Old Testament that equate sexual acting out with idolatry. . . What is crucial is to see that this purity and rejection of idolatry are linked with “following the Lamb wherever he goes” (14:4). The point, again, is ethical. Follow the path of persevering love as a form of “battle”—conquering as Jesus conquered, a direct contrast here with the Beast’s way of conquering.”[3]

14:6-9 present a trio of angels announcing three truths (which are really one). These are Brueggemann’s “dangerous promises.”

-God the Creator will not be mocked or frustrated. Judgment will befall all who resist his way and damage or mar his creation (see 11:18).

-Babylon the Great is fallen! (We will hear more about this later in the book.) Here Brueggemann’s “dangerous criticism” comes into play.

-all who worship the beast will experience eternal tortuous judgment for their disloyalty. This grim picture follows the logic of all such prophetic pronouncements. They are not saying this will be the future destiny of such people. Rather, they warn this may be the future for those who take no heed to this warning. Extreme and hyperbolic, Jesus goes as far as language allows to stress the urgent necessity of responding NOW and with a WHOLE HEART to what he is announcing.

Ch.13 closed with a call for wisdom in discerning and standing against the Beast. Ch.14 calls for endurance (14:12) defined as “keep(ing) the commandments of God and hold(ing) fast to the faith(fulness)  of Jesus. The “faith(fulness) of Jesus” is often translated “faith in Jesus.” Grammatically either are possible. Is this call to endurance based on what Jesus has accomplished or what we believe he has accomplished? Do we depend on Jesus or our faith in Jesus? I, for one, certainly hope I can depend on what Jesus has accomplished and not my own vacillating faith!

The “voice from heaven” closes off this section even as it opened it up (14:2) encouraging its hearers that even if they pay the “ultimate price” for resisting the Beast (think Brueggemann’s “dangerous departures”), they will be safe and secure, will “rest from their labors, for their deeds follow them” (14:13).

BTW, it seems that maybe we can “take it with us.” Our deeds follow us. And we will see later what role those deeds play in our life forever with God.

[1]  Walter Brueggemann, Cadences Toward Home: Preaching Among Exiles (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1997), 118ff.
[2] Grimsrud,
[3] Ibid.

Thursday, April 27, 2017

Who is being transformed into the image of Christ? Not me

I’ve just got back from a missions conference at which the idea that believers in general and “missionaries” in particular are being—or should be—transformed into the “image of Christ” got a lot of airtime.

I can see what people are getting at. The assumption is that Jesus represents either an ideal way of being human or an ideal way of doing ministry. He’s Jesus, after all! Therefore, to grow towards spiritual maturity is to be conformed to his image.

It’s a central plank of evangelical piety. Tim Challies quotes Jerry Bridges: “Christlikeness is God’s goal for all who trust in Christ, and that should be our goal also.”

It is used with reference to character: Jesus sets the standard for holiness, love, justice, faithfulness, etc. But it was also suggested at the conference that Jesus perfectly embodies the APEST functions of Ephesians 4:11 in himself, therefore he constitutes the standard for the ministries of the church.
I think that the argument is misleading, however, as a matter of New Testament interpretation . . .

Read more at:

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

The ‘Benedict Option’ is not enough

April 26, 2017

Camosy: Do you agree with Dreher’s diagnosis?

Michael Baxter: Yes and no.

Yes, I agree that mainstream U.S. culture is largely un-Christian, and that the government imposes secular values and mentality on supposedly independent bodies, including churches.

But no, I don’t agree that this all came to a head in 2013 with the Indiana religious freedom statue being rescinded and then the Supreme Court decision affirming the right for gays to marry. Dreher sees 2013 and gay marriage as the point of no return. I don’t see it that way.

How do you see it?

Christians should be as troubled, indeed more troubled, by war, poverty, racism in the United States than Dreher seems to be.  Writing as a “conservative Christian,” as a “values voter,” as he calls himself at one point, Dreher’s timeline and plotline are warped accordingly.

He refers to the 1960s as a time of consensus, except civil rights, as if the Vietnam War ever happened or wasn’t a concern for Christians. He mentions the Reagan years as if it was a highpoint in U.S. politics: The good ole days of nuclear terror, the Iran Contra scandal, and civil war in El Salvador, with U.S. funds ($1,000,000 a day) being diverted to the death squads.


Sunday, April 23, 2017

Resisting Trump with Revelation (24)

More Ways the Beast Seduces us

Dr. Daniel Akin, president of Southeastern Seminary, lays out four ways in which the Babylonian empire sought to bring the Jewish exiles in line with their pagan ways. These strategies show us how the world, in every era, can pressure Christians to conform.[1]
#1. Isolation
Akin writes:
“The first step in making Babylonians out of the four Hebrew teenagers was isolation from their homeland, family, and friends. The Babylonian strategy was to seize upon their vulnerability once they were separated from all that was familiar. Over time, they would be more likely to abandon their faith and become like the Babylonians.”
Being in exile doesn’t harm the Christian. Not being with God’s people does.
Isolation from other believers and immersion into a world of false assumptions make it difficult to maintain your Christian convictions.
#2. Indoctrination
Akin writes:
“The second step was to take these sharp and impressive young men and enroll them in an educational school for three years . . . They needed to be indoctrinated in the ways of the Babylonians—to become experts in the Babylonian language, philosophy, literature, science, history, and astrology. Religion would have been part of the curriculum too.”
This Re-education takes place all the time, through education, entertainment, societal expectations, etc.
Many Christians are unprepared to face the doctrines of a society that believes:
  1. faith in God is a personal, private thing with little to no bearing on the public sphere
  2. all religions are valid paths to discovering one’s own fulfillment
  3. the purpose of life is to enjoy yourself by finding what makes you happy, over against what family, church, or society tells you
  4. the human person can be reinvented and recreated in line with whatever identity a person chooses.
If we are to see how indoctrination plays a role in conforming us to the world, we must learn to see these and other doctrines on display in our society.
#3. Assimilation
“The third step was to totally immerse these followers of God into the world of Babylon . . . They would need to change their minds and their lifestyle, to eat and drink like the Babylonians. The strategy was to entice them with the delicacies and privileges of their new life.”
The only way to resist the lure of assimilating to the world is to rest in the love and approval of God. The voice we listen to the most—the Lord cheering on our faithfulness or the world cheering for our compromise—will have outsized influence in the path we choose.
#4. Confusion
“In the ancient world, changing one’s name was a big deal. It went to the core of a person’s identity. Giving the Hebrews new names in Babylon was a way of confusing them, reorienting their lives away from their past and toward the pagan gods of Babylonian culture. . . . Daniel and his three friends would have to fight to remember their identity and remain faithful.” 
In WWII, when the Jews were rounded up and placed in ghettos and then concentration camps, they were given numbers instead of their names. The Jewish young men in Daniel’s time were given new names, in order to confuse and alter their sense of being and identity.
Amazingly, Daniel and his friends discovered that in being true to their God-given identity, they were able to bless the Babylonian nation. Daniel climbed the ranks of the king’s administration. Hs friends’ courage wowed the king.
Had God’s people abandoned their identity, they would have failed to bless their captors. By maintaining their distinctive vision, no matter the pressure, they brought blessing to the worl


Friday, April 21, 2017

Resisting Trump with Revelation (23)

Stringfellow on the Powers

We have reached a point in our exposition where Jesus in his sermon has identified for us the fundamental source of our distress and opposition: supra-human spiritual forces (Satan, fallen angels, the two beasts). In Paul’s language he speaks of some of these forces as “principalities and powers” (Eph.6:12). William Stringfellow offers a perceptive account of the various strategies they use to repress humanity and sustain their own existence. It is especially remarkable that he wrote this over 40 years yet it reads as contemporary as today’s newspaper! His insights put some flesh on the struggle we face to resist the Trump phenomenon in our time and place.


The Powers main goal is to sustain themselves (survival). And yet, that brute fact is rarely discussed candidly and in the open. Still, the state functions as the preeminent principality and power.

1.  The Denial of Truth/lying

2.  Doublespeak and Overtalk/euphemism or jargon

3.  Secrecy and Boast of Expertise/hiding the truth

4.  Surveillance and Harassment/intimidating those who seek truth

5.  Exaggeration and Deception/absorbing the truth

6.  Cursing and Conjuring/banishing, smearing, locking up dissidents

7.  Usurpation and Absorption/co-opting the truth

8.  Diversion and Demoralization/diverting, distracting

These (assaults on truth) Stringfellow calls Babel. It overwhelms and dumbfounds the faculties of comprehension: conscience and sanity:

Babel means the inversion of language, verbal inflation, libel, rumor, euphemism and coded phrases, rhetorical wantonness, redundancy, hyperbole, such profusion in speech and sound that comprehension is impaired, nonsense, sophistry, jargon, noise, incoherence, a chaos of voices and tongues, falsehood, blasphemy.

The noise of technology he also includes under Babel.

Babel lays the foundation for violence. Stringfellow quotes Alexander Solzhenitsyn:

“Let us not forget that violence does not exist by itself and cannot do so; it is necessarily interwoven with lies. Violence finds its only refuge in falsehood, falsehood its only support in violence. Any man who has once acclaimed violence as his method must inexorably choose falsehood as his principle.” 

And given that the state sits at the top of the hierarchy of demonic powers, the state is generally named as "the Antichrist" in the biblical witness. Consequently, in her battle against the Antichrist the church exists in a state of resistance in relation to the state:

Those human beings and communities of humans who persevere in fidelity to God and to the gift of their humanity, those who resist death and thus live in Jesus Christ--whether that be a public formality or not--do so under the condemnation of the State in one way or another, be it in ridicule and ostracism, in poverty or imprisonment, as sojourners or fugitives, in clandestine existence, as a confessing movement, or, otherwise, in resistance.

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Resisting Trump with Revelation (22)

the second beast (13:11-18)
The Beast from the Earth (13:11-18)
A second beast, one from the earth, joins the beast from the sea. It has two horns “like a lamb.” (3:11). Remembering that a lamb is the central figure in God's plan to bring his purposes to fruition, the Dragon counters with a lamb-like beast. As the slaughtered lamb bears witness to the One on the throne, this lamb-like beast bears “witness” to the sea beast. The one who, like some Roman emperors, claimed to be “Lord and God.”[1] That this beastly “witness” has two lamblike horns reminds us of the two witnesses for God in ch.11. If the first beast is political power, this new beast is power of religion which so often serves to buttress the power and policies of the state. That's why it speaks “like a dragon.” By supporting the first beast, this second beast , like the first, ultimately serves the defeated but not yet destroyed Dragon in its futile efforts to undo God's plans.
Working with the first beast's power and authority, the second beast works to promote the “worship” of the former.  Worship – loyalty, love, livelihood, all placed in service of the beast. That's the Dragon's endgame. And God's. This is the “worship war” that matters!
Both beasts serve as grotesque parodies of the lamb. The two heads of earth beast we noted above. The reference to the sea beast “whose mortal wound had been healed” (13:12) suggests a faux “resurrection” to mimic that of Jesus. It's not a resurrection (which is going through death to new life) but a return to this old life.
But with the help of the earth beast, particularly an Elijah-like miracle that proved the sea beast's godlikeness (13:13; see 1 Ki. 18), this religious propagandist creates a religious vibe (v.15) for the worship of the sea beast. This worship is genuine even though its object false. And like all genuine worship, it “marks” the character and will of the worshiper with that of the sea beast so thoroughly that  “that no one can buy or sell who does not have the mark “ on his right or forehead (13:17). That is, the beast has the people's head and hands, the whole of them, conformed to his ghastly image.
In such a situation, it calls for wisdom (always considered a divine gift) to make the discernments Jesus calls for here (13:18). Such a gift is always available to those who “keep the commandments of God  and hold the testimony of Jesus” (12:17). With this wisdom we can identify the “number of the beast”: 666.
Far too much time, ink, and ingenuity has been spent on trying to identify this 666. And I'm not interested in rehearsing that story here. I believe the answer is simpler and far less exotic than many/most of the others proposed. Grimsrud says it well:

“The actual number “666” seems essentially irrelevant, despite all the energy put                                 into deciphering it in Christian history (and, especially, today). In a broad sense, it                                    surely mainly                 signifies the Beast and his deceptions. Perhaps one way to calculate                              the number is to say that it is six cubed, not seven—seven being the number of whole-                 ness and power. The Beast claims to be the peacemaker and to have mighty power,                      but actually falls short of God’s peace and God’s power, just as six falls short of seven.”[2]

This closeness of the number of the beast (even though it utterly foreign to 777, God's peace and power) is perhaps one way to account for the power of this beastly way to delude the nations and entice them to collude with its will for it. It is impressive, apparently even miraculous, able to penetrate human hearts and enjoin a steadfast loyalty on them.

A Beastly Church

                The church John warns his churches (and ours) against becoming by acceding or assimilating to the “beastly” character of the Empire is well-known to North Americans. We’ve seen a lot of it and much of it remains today. Orlando Costas gives a fine sketch of this kind of church as we have known it here. It has:

-"a conscience-soothing Jesus” (makes it easy to go along to get along),

-an unscandalous cross (Dietrich Bonhoeffer captures what the cross of Jesus actually entails: “Over against the successful, God sanctifies pain, lowliness, failure, poverty, loneliness, and despair in the cross of Christ. Not that all this has value in itself; it is made holy by the love of God, who takes it all and bears it as judgment”.[3] DBW Vol 6 (Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works) (p. 90).

-an otherworldly kingdom (focused on “heaven” and life after death there),

-a private, inwardly limited spirit (me and Jesus in my heart; no need for church [see below])

-a pocket God (one whose interested in saving us from this world for heaven rather transforming this world into an eternal home for him and his human creatures)

-a spiritualized Bible (one that focuses on our inner lives rather than faithfulness in public life), and

-an escapist church (one looking for Jesus to take it out of the world rather than engaging it).

The goal of such a beastly church is a happy, comfortable, and successful life, through “the forgiveness of an abstract sinfulness by faith in an unhistorical Christ." (Costas)

Such a church will never give the Empire trouble and will support it for both convenience and conscience sake. Loyalty to the Empire goes hand in hand with loyalty to “Christ.”

[1] Domitian, for instance. See Kraybill, Apocalypse and Allegiance, 131.
[2] Grimsrud, Johnson, Disci0leship on the Edge, 250 and Kraybill, Apocalypse and Allegiance, 67 also incline toward this solution.
[3]DBW Vol 6 (Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works) (p. 90).

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Resisting Trump with Revelation (21)

The Dragon and Two Beasts: The First Two Portents  2  (chs.12-13)

The Sea Beast (13:1-10)

Jesus continues his exposure of the deep dynamics at work in creation as the Dragon plants himself on the shore to continue his nefarious activities.[1] He summons a minion from the sea, a beast with “ten horns and seven heads” diadems on each horns and blasphemous names on the heads (13:1). He comes from the “sea” a haunt of demons and evil in Jewish thought. When Jesus describes the new heaven and new earth in Rev.21 he explicitly mentions that there was no sea (21:1). Evil has no foothold in the new creation!

But here and now it does. The ten and seven horns and heads bedecked with crowns reflects earlier use of this imagery: ten horns – full and complete power; seven heads filled with blasphemy. It was leopard-like, with bear-like feet, and a lion’s mouth (13:2). These animal elements were a part of Daniel’s vision of successive empires (7:3-7). Jesus’ creates this montage of oppressive powers to show that this figure indeed bore the power and authority of the Dragon (13:3). This first beast, then, is oppressive political rule.

Even more impressive than that, though, is Jesus’ invocation of the Nero Redivivus myth. Keener explains:

“Although Nero died, reportedly by his own hand, on June 9, a.d. 68, rumor circulated that he was still alive and ready to take vengeance on the Roman aristocracy for rejecting him. According to writers of the day, the majority of people in the eastern part of the Empire expected his return. Several impostors arose claiming to be Nero, hoping to gather followings in the eastern Empire, where he was most popular; one of them arose in Asia Minor during the reign of Titus (Domitian’s older brother). During Domitian’s reign, a Nero figure even persuaded the Parthians to follow him to invade the Roman Empire, but Domitian forced them to back down and execute the impostor instead.

“Jewish oracles predicted the return of Nero, and Christians feared it. Although John clearly does not believe in a literal return of Nero, he may use the image of this popular myth, as many scholars think, to say: "You thought Nero was bad; wait till you see this!" (the way we today would use the image of Hitler, Stalin or Pol Pot). This image so shaped the views of early Christians-thousands of whose numbers had been eradicated under Nero in Rome-that “Nero” even became a term for “antichrist” in the Armenian language. Many later Christian writers, including Tertullian, Augustine and Jerome, connected Nero with the antichrist. The view that John here uses this Nero redivivus myth has continued through history and is widely held by modern scholars, such as F. F. Bruce, William Barclay and most commentators on Revelation.”[2]

As a Nero-Redivivus figure, this beast excites fearful admiration, loyalty, and most tellingly, worship (13:4,8). And that, worship of the beast, is finally what Revelation is all about.

This beast exercises authority over the earth for 42 months (the time between Christ’s resurrection and return, as we have seen).  It blasphemes against God and wars Successfully against his people (13:6-7) and exercises authority over the whole world.

A saying consonant with Jesus’ own earthly teaching (Mt.26:52) counsels endurance and faith even if that means accepting the beast’s apparent hegemony without violently resisting it (13:9-10). Resist they shall, but not armed with weapons. Their very endurance and faith are the forms of resistance required.

[1] This is perhaps a weaker parody of the mighty angel with the little scroll who sands astride sea and land in 10:2.  
[2] Keener, IVP Background Commentary: New Testament, on Rev.13.

Saturday, April 15, 2017

Holy Saturday 2017

Entry into the City  John August Swanson
Holy Saturday is the end. Jesus is dead. His disciples are scattered and disheartened. Where was God? If he couldn’t/wouldn’t be there for this man, what hope I there for the rest of us?
This really is the end. All that’s left now is the Emmaus Road of discouragement and despair. What else is left when God doesn’t even show up for his own Son?
Why did Jesus have to go through this? I mean, he did everything right. This is not a God who can be trusted! One who’d leave his beloved hanging on a cross, dying, aid to rest in a borrowed tomb without a sign of protest or resistance. Yet that’s where we are this Holy Saturday.
I did read something recently which give a different take on this. But it’s far-fetched and implausible. I’m probably just grasping at straws here. But I’ll share it with you anyway. It’s from a series of letters from a senior Tempter in Hell to a junior devil he’s mentoring in the art of spiritual seduction. Screwtape and Wormwood are their names. In the eighth letter to Wormwood Screwtape waxes eloquent about the “troughs” human beings go through and the respective strategies of both the Devil and God. If Screwtape can be trusted, and that’s not a sure thing, right? He’s is a demon, after all. Yet . . . who would know better what God’s up to than a being whose job it is to confound just that divine activity?
Well, here it for what it’s worth.
“But the obedience which the Enemy demands of men is quite a different thing. One must face the fact that all the talk about His love for men, and His service being perfect freedom, is not (as one would gladly believe) mere propaganda, but an appalling truth. He really does want to fill the universe with a lot of loathsome little replicas of Himself—creatures, whose life, on its miniature scale, will be qualitatively
like His own, not because He has absorbed them but because their wills freely conform to His. We want cattle who can finally become food; He wants servants who can finally become sons. We want to suck in, He wants to give out. We are empty and would be filled; He is full and flows over. Our war aim is a world in which Our Father Below has drawn all other beings into himself: the Enemy wants a world full of beings united to Him but still distinct.
          «And that is where the troughs come in. You must have often wondered why the Enemy does not make more use of His power to be sensibly present to human souls in any degree He chooses and at any moment. But you now see that the Irresistible and the Indisputable are the two weapons which the very nature of His scheme forbids Him to use. Merely to over-ride a human will (as His felt presence in any but the faintest and most mitigated degree would certainly do) would be for Him useless. He cannot ravish. He can only woo. For His ignoble idea is to eat the cake and have it; the creatures are to be one with Him, but yet themselves; merely to cancel them, or assimilate them, will not serve. He is prepared to do a little overriding at the beginning. He will set them off with communications of His presence which, though faint, seem great to them, with emotional sweetness, and easy conquest over temptation. But He never allows this state of affairs to last long.
«Sooner or later He withdraws, if not in fact, at least from their conscious experience, all those supports and incentives. He leaves the creature to stand up on its own legs—to carry out from the will alone duties which have lost all relish. It is during such trough periods, much more than during the peak periods, that it is growing into the sort of creature He wants it to be. Hence the prayers offered in the state of dryness are those which please Him best. We can drag our patients along by continual tempting, because we design them only for the table, and the more their will is interfered with the better. He cannot "tempt" to virtue as we do to vice. He wants them to learn to walk and must therefore take away His hand; and if only the will to walk is really there He is pleased even with their stumbles. Do not be deceived, Wormwood. Our cause is never more in danger, than when a human, no longer desiring, but intending, to do our Enemy's will, looks round upon a universe from which every trace of Him seems to have vanished, and asks why he has been   forsaken, and still obeys.”
Could it be that Jesus’ “abandonment” by God was not a cry of despair but a cry of a mature            
faith? Another way of saying what he prayed in Gethsemane about not his but God's will be done? 
When we reach those lowest, driest moments is it possible we might find him there rather than 
to give up and give in to despair?

Screwtape does give us a reason for why God doesn't just swoop in and save Jesus at the last 
minute. But is it believable? Plausible? Jesus did say some funny thing would happen after his death.
But none of us paid much heed to all that. No, the truth is Jesus is dead and gone! What we'll do 
now is anyone's guess. It's going to be a long day, I think.

Friday, April 14, 2017

Worth a Thought or Heresy?

What if the reading of the creation stories in Gen.1-2 offered by Greg Beale that the Garden of Eden, Eden itself, and the uninhabited lands outside Eden symbolize the temple (Garden=Holy of Holies, Eden=Holy Place, uninhabited lands=temple courtyard) and God’s aim is for his image-bearers to extend the boundaries of that Garden Holy of Holies to finally encompass the whole earth making it a place where God can dwell with his people forever is on target. That makes Gen.1:28 the original “Great Commission.”

If God’s aim is as just stated then his mandate to turn this planet into a Holy of Holies is what human rebellion disrupted and what God’s call to Abraham and Sarah restarted by dealing with sin in order to fulfill God’s creational design.

This means that God’s Tempe-building project is his primary concern and focus. That’s what he’s working on and what calls his followers to work on. This is the “it” the whole God-thing is about (or what we call “salvation”).

And this salvation takes place in the midst of history, in our lives, here and now. Scripture tells us God has determined that his plan will succeed. We don’t have to worry about being included in it. The only real question is whether we will participate in the “salvation” God offers and Christ won for us on the cross. And that’s to play our part as God’s renewed image-bearers and temple builders. God still wants this world to be his eternal temple dwelling with us. And for us to share in its construction now (see 1 Cor.3:10-17). Call it discipleship, Christian life, sanctification, whatever, it’s about temple-building. And its about now.

Of course, we won’t finish the job or do it all right, or maybe even well. But God will see to it that our work is cleaned up and filled out by his grace and used in constructing the New Jerusalem, the Holy of Holies coextensive with the new creation in Rev.21. Perhaps, if we had this understanding of salvation we might have a greater sense of urgency and importance about our lives with God now, less interest in what divides us or is worth fighting over, and an easier time keeping our eye on the ball.

Worth a thought? Heretical?